Lithosphere Lithosphere Print Management                 

Lithosphere Print Glossary

With grateful acknowledgement to the British Printing Industries Federation.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | V | W |

A sizes
Main series of finished printing trimmed sizes in the ISO international paper size range.

Adhesive binding
Style of threadless binding in which the leaves of a book are held together at the binding edge by glue or synthetic adhesive and suitable lining.

Artwork
Text, graphic and illustrations arranged individually or in any combination for subsequent printing. Artwork may conventionally be drawn in black and white on suitable artpaper or board; or may be computer-originated, in which case it may be supplied as digitised data on a floppy disk or other means of electronic data. Artwork may also be in the form of a full-colour drawing or picture which requires specialist reprographic colour separation. This enables the separation to be printed in the four basic printing process colours (cyan, magenta, yellow and black).

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This is a standard coding system within the computer industry to convert keyboard input into digital information. It covers all of the printable characters in normal use and control characters such as carriage return and line feed. The full table contains 127 elements. Variations and extensions of the basic code are to be found in special applications.

Author's corrections
Corrections made by the author on proofs, that alter the original copy. The cost of making such alterations is charged for, in contrast to printer's errors or house corrections.

B sizes
ISO International sizes intended primarily for posters, wall charts and similar items where difference in size of the larger sheets in the A series represents too large a gap.

Back
The back of a book is the binding edge. To back a book is to shape the back of a previously rounded book, so as to make a shoulder on either side against which the front and back covers fit closely.

Bitmap
An image arranged accordingly to bit location in columns. Resolution of a PostScript file processed through a RIP will have a bitmap image with the characteristics and resolution of the particular output device (for example, laser printer at 300 upto 1200dpi, imagesetters at 1270dpi upto 5080dpi).

Bleed
Printed matter which runs off the edge of the substrate; also used by bookbinders to describe over-cut margins and mutilated print.

Blind
Term applied to a litho plate which has lost its image; also to book covers which are blocked or stamped without the use of ink or metallic effect.

Blister packaging
Method of packaging in which an object is placed in a pre-formed, clear plastic tray and backed by a printed card.

Block
In binding, to impress or stamp a design upon the cover. The design can be blocked in coloured inks, gold leaf or metal foil (
see blind). In printing, a letterpress block is the etched copper or zinc plate, mounted on wood or metal from which an illustration is printed.

Bound Book
A book in which the boards of the cover have first been attached to it, the covering of leather, cloth, or other materials being then affixed to the boards. Bound books are more expensive to produce and much stronger than cased books.

Broadsheet
Any sheet in its basic size (not folded or cut); also denotes a newspaper size.

Bromide
A photographic paper used in graphic reproduction, phototypesetting on which a photographic image is created.

Bulk
Relative thickness of a sheet or sheets, for example, a bulky paper and a thin paper both of the same weight display different "bulk".

Burst binding
A type of adhesive binding in which the back of the book block is not sawn off, but is slit in place to allow glue to penetrate.

C sizes
The C series within the ISO International paper sizes range which is mainly used for envelopes or folders suitable for enclosing stationary in the A series.

Camera-ready artwork
Finished artwork that is ready, without further preparation, to be photographed.

Case binding
The binding of printing books, which include leather, cloth and other forms of covering

Cheque paper
Paper chemically treated in order to betray any tampering with the writing on the cheques.

Colour proofing
This term describes a wide range of techniques which have been developed to reproduce full colour images from film or digital data available, prior to the actual print run; thus allowing the client, colour separation house and printer to view the "proofed" result, prior to the actual print run.

Contract proof
A coloured, hard copy representation of the printed image, made from the films, or digital data, which will be used to make the final printing plates. The word "contract" comes from the fact that, when signed by the client, a contract is formed, which states that the final printed job should be a close match to the contract proof.

Cut-in index
Style of index in which the divisions are cut into the edge of the book in steps: step index.

Densitometer
A device for measuring the closeness of substance at a specific location on film or printed product, either by reflected or transmitted light. Densitometers vary in their sophistication and the number of features provided, such colour, black-and-white, read-out memory, computer printout etc.

Desktop publishing
A generic title given to the introduction of personal computers (PC) to typesetting, page composition and image handling. The combination of all these gives electronic control within a single system of what was traditionally a specialist and segmented operation.

Diestamping
An intaglio process of printing in which the resultant impression stands out in relief above the surface of the stamped material, either coloured (using inks) or blind (that is, without colour): relief stamping.

Digital
Describes the use of digital pulses, signals or values to represent data in computer graphics, telecommunications systems and word processing.

Digital page composition
DPC, also known as EPCS (electronic page composition system) or CEPS (colour electronic page system). A system designed to take a range of page elements (text, linework and images) and integrate them into a user-specified format. Image and text input to the system arrive on magnetic tape, by direct system interconnection or directly from an input scanning system.

Drawn-on cover
A paper book cover which is attached to the sewn book by gluing the spine.

Dummy
A sample of a proposed job made up with the actual materials and cut to the correct size to show bulk, style of binding, etc. Also a complete layout of a job showing position of type matter and illustrations, margins etc.

Embossing
The process of raising, by an uninked block, letters or designs on card or strong paper.

Flexography
A relief process in which printing is done from rubber or plastic on a web-fed press using liquid inks.

Four-colour process
Colour printing by means of the three subtractive primary colours (yellows, magenta, cyan) and black superimposed; the colours of the original having been separated by a photographic or electronic process.

g/m2
Abbreviation of grams per metre. A method of indicating the substance of paper or board (whatever the size of the paper/board or number of sheets in the package) on the basis of weight in grams per square metre.

Gathering
To place in their correct order the sections or sheets to make up a book.

Gravure printing
A process in which the printing areas are below the non-printing surface. The recesses are filled with ink and the surplus is cleaned off the non-printing area with a blade before the paper contacts the whole surface and lifts the ink from the recesses.

Heat-set drying
Drying a web or sheet of paper or board by passing it through a drying unit which forms part of the machine. Special heat-setting inks have to be used.

Hot-foil
A printing technique using very thin aluminium foil in a variety of metallic colours, such as gold, silver, red and blue. The metallic foil is released from carrier base onto a substrate by the application of heat and pressure from a metal printing plate which bears the image to be hot-foiled.

House correction
Corrections in gallery or page proofs, other than those made by the author.

Ink jet
A non-impact printing process in which droplets of ink are projected onto paper or other material, in a computer-determined pattern.

Insert
A piece of paper or card laid between the leaves of a book and not secured in anyway.

ISDN
This is an acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network - a telephone network service which carries data, voice transmissions by digital means, not analogue.

Laminating
The application of transparent plastic film, usually with a high-gloss finish, to the surface of printing matter to enhance its appearance and to increase its durability.

Landscape
Oblong loose or folded printed sheet, or book, having its long sides at head and foot.

Laser
Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation - a fine beam of light, sometimes with considerable energy, used in imagesetting, colour scanning, copy scanning, platemaking, engraving and cutting and creasing forme-making.

Letterpress printing
A process in which the printing surface of metal, plastic, photopolymer or rubber is raised above the non-printing surface. The ink rollers and the substrate touch only the relief printing surface.

Limp cover
A flexible book cover, as distinct from a stiff board cover.

Lithographic printing
A process in which the printing and non-printing surfaces are on the same plane and the substrate makes contact with the whole surface. The printing part of the surface is treated to receive and transmit ink to the paper, usually via a blanket (
see offset printing), the non-printing surface is treating to attract water and thus rejects ink from the ink roller, which touches the surface.

Look-through
The appearance of paper or board when held up against a strong light.

MICR
Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. Automatic sorting method used, e.g.. on cheques, based on the printing of numbers in magnetic ink.

Numbering-at-press
To number a job on the printing machine by means of numbering boxes.

Offset printing
A lithographic method of printing in which the ink is first transferred from the image to an offset blanket and then to the stock which may be paper, card, metal or other material.

Original
The term applied to copy which is to be reproduced.

Overs
The quantity of unit production, for example, books and sheets, delivered to the customer above the net amount ordered, usually uncharged at a run-on rate; also allowance to cover wastage.

Pantone
Pantone, Pantone Matching System and PMS + are Pantone Inc's check-standard trademarks for colour standards, colour data, colour reproduction and colour reproduction materials, and other colour related products and services, meeting its specifications, control and quality requirements.

Perfect Binding
See adhesive binding.

Perfecting
Printing the second side of a sheet; backing-up.

Portrait
An upright, oblong artwork or photograph where vertical dimension is greater than the horizontal.

PostScript
A Page Description Language (PDL) developed by Adobe, which describes the contents and layout of a page. PostScript also serves as a programming language whereby the PostScript code is executed by a PostScript RIP in the output device in order to produce a printout or film containing the page.

Proof
A version of a document or colour illustration produced specifically for the purpose of review prior to reproduction.

Quality
The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy a given need or requirement; also describes as "fitness for purpose" or value for money as perceived by the customer.

Register
The printing of two or more plates in juxtaposition so that they complete a design if printing on the same side of the sheet or back up accurately if printed on opposite sides of the sheet.

Saddle-wire stitching
To stitch with wire through the back of the folded work.

Screen-printing
Often called silk screen printing from the material formerly used for the screen. A stencil process with the printing and non-printing areas on one surface. The printing (image) area is open and produced by various forms of stencil. The substrate is placed under the screen and ink is passed across the top of the screen and forced through the open (printing) areas on to the substrate below.

Section
A folded sheet of paper forming part of a book; sections are sometimes made of insetted folded sheets of four, eight sixteen or more pages.

Sew
To fasten the sections of a book together by passing thread through the center fold of each section in such a way as to secure it to the slips; in distinction from stitch.

Shrink wrap
Method of packing printed products by surrounding them with plastic, then shrinking by heat.

Side stitching
To stitch through the side from front to back at the binding edge with thread or wire. (
See stabbing).

Skin packaging
Method of packaging by which thin, clear plastic is shrunk onto an object backed by printed card.

Stabbing
To stitch with wire through the side of gathered work at the binding edge.

Stitch
To sew, staple or otherwise fasten together by means of thread or wire the leaves or signatures of a book or pamphlet. The different styles of stitching are; double stitch, where two loops of a single thread are fastened in the center of the fold. Machine stitch, where a lock stitch is made; saddle or saddle-back stitch, where the center of the fold is placed across the saddle in the machine and wire staples are driven through and clenched on the inside, side stitch, where the thread or wire is stitched through the side of the fold; single stitch, where a single loop is drawn through the center and tied; wire stitch, in which staples are made, inserted and clenched by a machine from a continuous piece of wire, as in the saddle back stitch; as distinct from sew.

Stochastic screening
Also known as FM (Frequency Modulated) screening. With conventional halftone screening, the variable dot size formed, creates the optical illusion of various tonal values; however, the dot center pitch distance is constant. In the case of FM screening systems, the dots are randomly distributed to create this tonal change illusion. The greater the number of dots located within a specific area, the darker the resultant tone. The dots produced in this way are usually smaller than conventional halftone dots, resulting in improved definition, although greater care and attention to detail is required in platemaking stage.

Stringing
To insert and tie string on hanging cards, catalogues, and other work either singly or in batches.

TIFF
Tagged Image File Format, a file format for exchanging bitmapped images (usually scans) between applications.

Tints
Mechanical shading in line areas, normally available in 5% steps from 5% to 95%.

Varnishing
To apply oil, synthetic, spirit, cellulose or water varnish to printed matter by hand or machine to enhance its appearance or increase its durability.

Vignette
This term usually refers to a single dot pattern that may start at 50% dot and gradually decrease to say 5% in a smooth graduation.

Web Offset
Reel-fed offset litho printing. Three main systems of presses exist blanket-to-blanket in which two plate and two blanket cylinders per unit print and perfect the web of paper or board; three-cylinder system in which plate, blanket and impression cylinders operate in the usual manner to print one side of the paper or board; and satellite or planetary systems in which two, three or four plate and blanket cylinders are arranged around a common impression cylinders to print one side of the web in several colours.

Copyright 2008 Lithosphere


Lithosphere's Personnel
Lithosphere's Product Guide
Lithosphere's Portfolio
Lithosphere's Print Process
Lithosphere's Philosophy
Lithosphere's References
New products from Lithosphere
Lithosphere's Order Form
Links to Other Web Sites